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December 25, 1994 found Tsutomu Shimomura, a computational physicist for the San Diego Supercomputer Center, on his way to the Sierra Nevadas to go skiing. He had left his personal network of computers running at his beach cottage in Del Mar, just north of San Diego. Perhaps it is fortunate for us he did so.
Just after two o'clock in the afternoon, Shimomura's home
systems were probed, then successfully attacked using something
new in Internet attacks, sequence number guessing.
Shimomura also works as a security expert, which made his systems
both desirable targets for attack, and allows us to understand in
detail what happened. Because, unlike most networks, Shimomura
tcpdump to monitor
traffic incoming from his Internet connection, and routinely sent
his logs to an offsite location.
Sequence number guessing is not really new. Steve Bellovin, a researcher at Bell Labs, and co-author of the Firewalls and Internet Security book (Addison-Wesley, 1994, ISBN 0-201-63357-4), included details of an attack scenario in his 1989 paper entitled ``Security Problems in the TCP/IP Protocol Suite''. But the Christmas day attack is the first known use of the technique.
To better understand what happened, it helps to understand a
little about how TCP (Transport Control Protocol) works. TCP is
used for establishing bidirectional streams, like
those used for remote terminal connections (established with
rlogin utilities). TCP is
also used for transferring large amounts of data, for example
with FTP or connecting to a Web server.
TCP provides a reliable connection. That is, unlike most other parts of the Internet Protocol suite (such as ICMP, Internet Control Message Protocol, or UDP, User Datagram Protocol), TCP establishes a connection between the local and remote site. Once the connection has been successfully established, groups of bytes of data are acknowledged by sending a sequence number back to the sending site. If the sending site does not receive an acknowledgement quickly enough, it will resend the data. If the sending site has resent the same data several times unsuccessfully, it will send an error to the application saying that the connection has been broken.
The sequence number is used to acknowledge receipt of data. At the beginning of a TCP connection, the client sends a TCP packet with an initial sequence number, but no acknowledgement (there can't be one yet). If there is a server application running at the other end of the connection, the server sends back a TCP packet with its own initial sequence number, and an acknowledgement: the initial sequence number from the client's packet plus one. When the client system receives this packet, it must send back its own acknowledgement: the server's initial sequence number plus one. Thus, it takes three packets to establish a TCP connection (see Part A of Figure 1 which shows the time-line diagram.
There's more to TCP, of course. You won't learn all about TCP in this short article (try Doug Comer's book Internetworking with TCP/IP, Volumme 1, Principles, Protocols, and Architecture. Second Edition (Prentice Hall, 1991 ISBN 0-13-468505-9) or W. Richard Steven's TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume 1 (Addison-Wesley, 1993, ISBN 0-201-63346-9). For now, it's important to understand that TCP packets include flag bits that get set to indicate conditions. When you read Shimomura's account of the attack, he makes reference to several flags.
The SYN flag (shown as a capital ``S'' in
command output) indicates the initiation of a connection, and
that an initial sequence number is included. When the first
packet is sent from the client, only the SYN flag is set. When
the server responds, both the SYN flag and the ACK flag,
indicating that a valid acknowledgement is included, are set.
From then on, the ACK flag will be set, showing that each packet
includes an acknowledgement of a received packet.
The PUSH (shown as a capital ``P'') flag means that the data in this packet should be pushed to the application, rathered than queued until more data arrives. The RESET (``R'') flag tells TCP to break (reset) the connection, and is sent when a client attempts to connect to a server application that is not running. In the attack, RESETs are used to close the half-open connections used to keep the server busy.
The FIN bit (``F'') is used to close a connection. Each end of the connection sends a packet with the FIN flag, which must be acknowledged, so four packets are used to close a TCP connection. Of course in the attack you won't see two FIN packets, because the attacker never sees the responses from the target system, the X terminal.
With this background, you are ready to read Shimomura's own description, if you haven't
already. Essentially, the attack begins when several probes were
toad.com (a site registered by Nebula
Consulting). Although I don't know this for sure, it is likely
toad.com had been broken into previously using
The probes, using
rpcinfo (similar to probes from SATAN, but not
automatic) apparently helped the attacker to determine a trust
relationship between Shimomura's X terminal (actually another
workstation used as an X terminal), and a local server. This was
the real weakness exploited in the attack. Shimomura's systems
trusted one another, using the trust mechanism exploited in the
``r'' commands like
Although convenient, and safe behind a strong perimeter defense,
trust has been used to break into systems for many years. The
November 1988 Internet Worm exploited trust in its automated
In the next phase of the attack, thirty TCP SYN packets are
sent to the
rlogin port of Shimomura's server.
These packets come from an unused Internet address, and their
initial sequence numbers are incremented by one instead of the
more common 128,000. The purpose of these packets are to fill
the queue on the server with half-open connections, so when the
spoofing begins, the server won't be able to respond
to the packets being sent as acknowledgements from the X
Next, a system at Loyola University of Chicago
apollo.it.luc.edu) was used to probe the X
terminal. Once again, a synthetic series of TCP packets (initial
sequence numbers incremented by one) gets sent, but this time
responses get sent back to a real site. It is the responses that
the attacker is after, because each response contains an initial
sequence number from the X terminal. In Shimomura's paper
labels the responses with
apollo.it.luc.edu.1000 S, indicating a packet with the SYN
flag set. If we subtract the first initial sequence number from
the second, 2021952000-2021824000, we get 128,000, a pattern that
holds for all twenty probes. So now the attacker knows that the
next initial sequence number will be 128,000 greater than the
The stage is now set for abusing the trust between the X
terminal and the server. The attacker generates packets that
appear to come from the server to open a TCP connection with the
rshell daemon. The X terminal sends an
acknowledgement back to the server, but this acknowledgement gets
stuck in the queue. Next, the attacker generates the
acknowledgement the server might have sent (if it had really been
the server initiating the connection). Now there is an open TCP
connection from the X terminal to the server, which is being
spoofed by the server. Figure 1B shows
how the packets actually traveled.
Because the X terminal trusts the server, the attacker,
masquerading as root, sends the command
"echo + + >>
/.rhosts" to the X terminal, extending trust to ANY root
user with access to this system. Then the attacker closes the
connection by sending a packet with FIN set, and acknowledging
the FIN packet never seen from the X terminal. Finally, thirty
RESETs are sent to the server to clear its queue. At this point,
the server would send a RESET to the X terminal to close the
rshell connection it never made (the one spoofed by
the attacker), but it is now too late. The attacked can now log
in as root on the X terminal using
There was more to the attack, but I'd like to save taking over TCP connections for another day. There is also a CERT advisory about this attack, which you can read.Copyright © 1995 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Last Modified: Tuesday, 22-Aug-95 15:55:54 PDT